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Examples of T-O Maps






T-O map from Isidore of Seville’s Etymologiarum, 10th century, 11.5 cm diameter

T-O map from Isidore’s Etymologiae, Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid Cod. 76, fol 108




Situs Hierusalem (map of Jerusalem), ca. 1100 A.D., 21.5 X 12.7 cm



Situs Hierusalem (map of Jerusalem)





Climatic Zone and T-O maps, from Novissime Hystoriae by Giacomo Foresti




12th century map of Jerusalem





13th century Circular Plan of Jerusalem, 26 cm diameter





12th century Reverse T-O map from MS of Isidore’s De natura rerum, 19 cm diameter




9th century T-O map from Strasburg MS





T-O map showing a 4th continent (Antipode), 11 cm diameter




Sallust T-O map from De bello Jugurthino, West oriented, 6.8 cm diameter






9th century T-O map from MS of Isidore’s De natura rerum




13th century Sallust T-O map with symmetrical rivers, 10.5 cm diameter




12th century Spanish T-O map, 7cm diameter